Infection symptoms develop during early reproductive stages at nodes as a small red-brown lesion. Over time, the lesion expands, forming a darker brown, elongated sunken canker. Leaf tissue yellows between the veins and, with reduced water flow, death of leaves is common. At times, top growth ceases and a shepherd s crook curl develops. Girdling and toxin production are responsible for symptoms and death. Symptoms in Minnesota often are field and seedlot specific, and may have resulted from seed contamination. However, the fungus is reported to survive on infested debris. Most soybean cultivars can be infected, but only those that are susceptible allow the disease to develop.