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|What is Soybean Aphid?|
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What is the soybean aphid?
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The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsamura) is a native pest of soybean in eastern Asia. The aphid is relatively small (<1/16” long when mature) and pale yellow. It’s the only aphid that forms colonies on soybean in the U.S. Identifying features on the wingless forms in soybean include its black cornicles and pale cauda.
Identifying the soybean aphid
The soybean aphid is closely related to the cotton / melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, which is occasionally observed on soybean. Other aphids that may be confused for soybean aphid on buckthorn include the buckthorn aphid. Identification of aphids can only be confirmed by examining the winged forms, the alates. Technical information on distinguishing among winged aphids can be found in: Citation coming soon...
Where did the Invading Soybean Aphids Originate?
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The range of the soybean aphid stretches from southern Siberia and the Korean peninsula south through China and Japan to the Indochina peninsula, the Philippines and Indonesia. It’s most recent range expansions include the New South Wales and Queensland in Australia, detected early in 2000, and the U.S., detected in July 2000.
The origin of soybean aphids invading the U.S. has not been conclusively determined. Studies of its longevity and reproductive rates at different temperatures suggest a north temperate origin; its optimal population growth occurs with temperatures in the upper 70s oF and low 80s oF.
How and When did the Soybean Aphid get to the U.S.?
A number of possible routes of entry have been proposed for the soybean aphid:
While the exact route into the U.S. may never be determined, studies of its distribution and spread in the U.S. implicate an introduction near Chicago. Chicago is at the epicenter of the initial distribution of the aphid in the U.S.
Considering its initial distribution and the rate of spread, the soybean aphid has been in the U.S. since at least the mid-1990s. There was an unconfirmed observation of aphids in soybean in July of 1995 by Paul Hogg, a crop consultant near Ft. Atkinson in southeast Wisconsin. Early reports of soybean aphids in 2000 were from the same area of Wisconsin, as well as northern Illinois and Michigan.
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Last Modified 3/25/11 2:23 PM